The relations between India and Pakistan have been bitter since 1960’s, but Pakistan has certainly kept evolving its motives and strategies behind the continued rivalry. By focusing on the “Kashmir issue” as the sole cause of enmity, we tend to misperceive the actual cause of growing tensions between India-Pakistan, which is rooted and grown on historical flaws of partition.
The partition of Pakistan from India was based on the ideology that India is a country dominated by Indian Hindus. It was speculated by Muhammad Ali Jinnah that Muslims as a minority will always stay oppressed in a country ruled by Hindus. But the actual reason for partition was not based on the interest of the Muslim community or the Indian Hindus, but the elite leaders who were insecure about their political career in an independent India.
The insecurity of Pakistani leaders later triggered the inferiority complex of Pakistan as a country, which is the root cause of tensions between India and Pakistan. Following are the factors that increased inferiority driven by insecurity of Pakistan against India.
Firstly, Pakistan knew that the geographical territory it gained after partition was insufficient for it to grow in future. Also, compared to India’s large geography, it will always remain a lesser developed nation. Henceforth, suffering from inferiority complex, Pakistani leaders attacked the ownership of Jammu and Kashmir region, creating tensions. This later led to the first war of Kashmir in 1947.
Political and Economic Failure of Pakistan
Secondly, though Pakistan recovered well as an economy, it faced serious issues in governing east and West Pakistan, effectively. The frequent shift in leadership depicted weakness of the parliamentary system, which resulted in the military coup of 1958. This pulled Pakistan into a vicious cycle of low economic growth and a pool of internal tensions, which later enhanced the inferiority from India.
Thirdly, both the nations developed as secular states. India was dominated by the Hindus and Pakistan was dominated by the Muslims who later converted into Islamic republic. India, despite of its complex social structure, is able to float successfully till present. However, Pakistan faced serious issues. Moreover, it will not be entirely wrong to suggest that communal tensions in India were incepted for a twin purpose, which was to destabilise India, proving its superiority and to cater extreme Islamist ideology, “Wahabism”.
Tensions between India and Pakistan were also fuelled by the geo-strategic factors. US and China capitalised Pakistan’s inferiority, to gain control over India. It will not be incorrect to state that, US used Pakistan as a military base against both, China and India. Though, today US acknowledges Pakistan as a terrorist haven, it is also the one, which laid its foundations. Pakistan used the opportunity to get financial and diplomatic aid from both China and US for a long time against India.
Unlike UPA, Modi Government had taken a very bold stand on issues relating to national security in context to economy, polity and defence, which certainly affected Pakistan’s confidence. Moreover, with NSA Ajit Doval’s “defensive to defensive and offensive to offensive” strategy has sent a clear message to the much deserving Pakistani counterpart, “if you mess with us, we will get back to you”. This has put frustrated Pakistan on the back-foot. Now, its primary objective is to destabilise the existing government in order to regain the lost ground.
At present, it not only focuses on direct warfare, but also information warfare. Leaders like Farooq Abdulla speaking in support, Malleha Lodhi allegation in UNGA, release and support of Hafiz Saeed, Musharaf’s open message of supporting LeT and JuD; are all indications that the state machinery with its terror outfits, will now attack with full force to bring down the government. Its next move on security board may knock India down.
We need to understand psychological weakness of Pakistan in order to keep it in the position of deterrence. It is hardly concerned with the welfare of its people, but is driven majorly by its ego to gain superiority. In accordance, we must plan our diplomatic, economic and military strategies, to keep it in check, for it is a victim of incurable complex.